also called student mobility. Changing schools increases the likelihood that students will have poorer academic achievements, be involved in more disciplinary infractions, and experience further negative outcomes when compared with other nonmobile students. 4 Research has also demonstrated the positive impact that interventions like the Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) and other subsidized housing supports can have on children. Children whose families use rental assistance to move to lower-poverty neighborhoods are substantially more likely to attend college and earn more as adults. 5 Further, additional years spent in LIHTC housing as a child is associated with an average 3.9 percent increase in the likelihood of attending a higher education program for four years or more, and a 5.2 percent increase in future earnings. 6 Similarly, for each additional year a teenager’s family used a voucher or lived in public housing they had higher earnings as an adult. 7
Surveying Educators About Their Perceptions
Survey Description Enterprise and NHPF developed a survey instrument to address the research questions. This survey consisted of fifteen multiple-choice questions (see Appendix A for the full survey). Each question in the survey ties to one of the components of the research questions. To ensure the survey would be effectively capture the educator perspective, the questions were shared with our partners at StriveTogether for review and comment. Survey Implementation Enterprise and NHPF partnered with Wakefield Research, a market research firm with extensive experience in survey development and implementation, to administer the survey. Wakefield leveraged an existing panel to deliver a robust response sample of 500 educators, with sufficient sample size in key demographic and geographic areas to allow for statistically relevant analysis. These representative quotas included grade band, region, gender, age, urbanicity, and whether respondents work in a low-income school district. In addition, we collected information on the amount of time the respondents have been in the education field, type of school in which they work, their role in the school, and respondents’ race and ethnicity. All participants reported in the sample interact with students or families as a primary everyday responsibility. For clarity of understanding, the survey instrument used the term “housing-related challenges” to mean “housing instability.” Questions and responses are reported here with the language and terms as they appear in the survey. The survey was administered in the summer of 2020, with data collection over a two-week period. The survey invitations were sent by email and screener questions ensured that the final respondent sample met the representative quotas. 4 C layton, Wayne Franklin. “Cognitive and Behavioral Consequences of Mobility for Fifth-Grade Students in a Large Metropolitan School District.” D.Phil., Mercer University, 2018. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2224051486/abstract/150654ED8B7D458EPQ/1. 5 F ischer, Will, Douglas Rice, and Alicia Mazzara. “Research Shows Rental Assistance Reduces Hardship and Provides Platform to Expand Opportunity for Low-Income Families,” 2019 n.d., 12. 6 D erby, Elena. “Does Growing Up in Tax-Subsidized Housing Lead to Higher Earnings and Educational Attainment?” SSRN Scholarly Paper. Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network, March 11, 2020. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3491787. 7 F ischer, Will, Douglas Rice, and Alicia Mazzara. “Research Shows Rental Assistance Reduces Hardship and Provides Platform to Expand Opportunity for Low-Income Families,” 2019 n.d., 12. Research review published by the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities.
Growing Up & Out of Poverty
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