2017 Symposium Industry Report: Pay for Success

Who Are the Homeless? Homeless individuals do not have consistent access to a place of their own. The Department of Housing and Urban Development breaks down homelessness into four categories:

• Individuals living in emergency shelters, transitional homes, or areas not meant for human habitation (such as streets) • Individuals who lose temporary housing every 14 days • Families with children facing unstable housing conditions • I ndividuals fleeing domestic violence who do not have perma- nent residence 14

Measurements of homeless populations employ a point-in-time count method, conducted over a ten-day period where communities document how many shel- tered and unsheltered individuals live in their communities. These measure- ments do not count the sizable population of at-risk individuals who are housed but face economic burdens like unemployment or severe rent cost burdens, or live doubled up with family and friends to save on rent. The National Alliance to End Homelessness finds that doubling up is the most common living situa- tion prior to homelessness; in 2014, about 7 million individuals from poor house- holds doubled up 15 contributing to high rates of overcrowding in low-income neighborhoods. HUD Programs for the Homeless In addition to local and statewide initiatives aimed at fighting homelessness, the federal government provides four major resources; emergency shelter grants, per- manent supportive housing, shelter plus care, and housing voucher programs. 16 Emergency shelter grants provide states and communities funding to rehabilitate and operate facilities like shelters, as well as provide essential ser- vices for the homeless. Permanent Supportive Housing (PSH) initiatives seek to provide homes for the homeless. Often coupled with wraparound support ser- vices to assist individuals, PSH initiatives tackle homelessness directly through housing. Shelter plus care models, like wraparound services, provide assistance to individuals with chronic disabilities. Housing vouchers aimed at low-income and homeless individuals such as Rapid Rehousing vouchers help bridge housing cost issues, which often are the primary causes of homelessness. Other federal programs, such as the Section 8 Single Room Occupancy (SRO) program, man- date an allotment of units that must be made available to the homeless. Case Study: Homeless in Charlottesville A 2012 study conducted by theThomas Jefferson Area Coalition for the Homeless calculated the average cost of homelessness per person on the local government

Pay for Success & Affordable Housing | Stefano Rumi 15

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